The NASSP Board of Directors has stated its intent to adopt the following position statement. Following a 30-day public comment period, the Board will approve the position statement. Please send feedback and recommendations to NASSP Director of Advocacy, Amanda Karhuse, at karhusea@nassp.org by December 18, 2020.

Purpose: To highlight the importance of providing access to and understanding of how to properly use technology to open doors to each student locked out of learning and, in turn, make learning more inclusive.

Education has seen an increase in the use of a variety of technologies to help promote access, new learning opportunities, and new teaching styles for educators and students. However, the increased use in technology has led to new challenges as well, most notably the inability of some student groups to access or most effectively use digital tools and resources to accelerate their learning. Commonly referred to as the digital divide, many groups of students are often at a disadvantage compared to their peers due to their lack of access through either digital equipment or reliable broadband access.

Digital equity has become a policy many are paying closer attention to, and recent data from Project Tomorrow found that digital equity concerns are at the forefront of educators and parent’s minds. When examining the use of Google Education Suite in classrooms, these organizations found significant levels of variance in the use of this product in majority-white schools compared to majority-minority schools. In daily usage, majority-white schools used this product 22 percent more daily and 20 percent more weekly than the majority-minority schools. This similar trend held true when examining lower-income and higher-income schools as well. Title I schools often used Google Education Suite 21 percent less daily and 22 percent less weekly than their non-Title I peers. The use of new education technologies is something that cannot be ignored, and differences like this must be rectified; this is a belief held by many of the stakeholders in a student’s education. The same report found that 99 percent of K–12 principals strongly agree that the effective use of technology is important for students’ future success. Ninety-seven percent of K–12 district administrators and 95 percent of parents of school-aged children strongly agreed with this sentiment as well.

While physical technology—like laptops, tablets, and smartphones—play an essential role in equity and access of information, another key component of digital equity is reliable broadband access. Many low-income students and those in rural areas suffer from a lack of reliable internet access, which can cause them difficulties when participating in online instruction and completing assignments away from school. This lack of access was described as the “homework gap” by Federal Communications Commissioner Jessica Rosenworcel. In 2019, a Pew Research Center report helped illuminate how much of the American public struggles with reliable broadband access. The report found that 37 percent of rural Americans have no broadband internet service at home, trailing urban residents by 12 points and suburban residents by 16 points. Overall, 17 percent of teens say they are often or sometimes unable to complete homework assignments because they do not have reliable access to a computer or internet connection. This is even more common among students of color and lower-income students who are already lacking many of the resources that other white and higher-income populations possess. Educators realize that this is a prevalent issue as well, with 87 percent in an EdWeek Research Center survey saying it is very important for students to have good internet access at home.

Though accessibility is one of the key factors in promoting digital equity, another key piece of the puzzle is educator preparedness to use technology—including software and platforms to enhance instruction and train students on how to properly use and engage them. This can often be referred to as the “digital use divide,” a term coined in the National Education Technology Plan. As new technologies continue working their way into student’s learning environments, educators must continually adapt their teaching styles to the new realities of their profession in a way that best serves their students. For many, this means learning new technologies and developing new strategies in a continuously changing environment and in new instructional models as well. This is especially true for educators who are using mobile technologies to help educate students with special needs, as they may require additional accessibility and learning components. Recent research from the National Center for Learning Disabilities highlighted just how impactful education technology is for students with learning disabilities in two main ways. First, students with disabilities often use assistive technology to help them connect with otherwise inaccessible general education curriculum as well as to maximize their learning strengths. Second, they use technology more generally to help in creating engaging educational experiences when compared to their peers. As the technological landscape continues to evolve, so will the possibility of more personalized learning opportunities that increase the chances for each student to learn successfully. Proper investments must be made so educators are able to utilize new digital tools so they can provide the best possible learning opportunity for each student.

Recommendations

Recommendations for Policymakers

  • Provide a funding stream to ensure broadband infrastructure and mobile learning devices for each student to help in closing the digital divide. An example of this would be the federal E-Rate program.
  • Engage school leaders in the conversations that inform digital policies and ensure proper investments in cybersecurity measures for school districts as more learning goes digital.
  • Provide additional funding for the hiring and professional development of specialized staff to aid educators in adopting and implementing new learning technologies. Such staff can include but are not limited to education technology coaches and library media specialists.
  • Provide additional funding for professional development on the effective use of technology to ensure educators are able to effectively use the latest technology for educating their students.
  • Collect and analyze broadband connectivity data to paint a clearer picture of where additional support for broadband connectivity is necessary.
  • Incentivize private broadband carriers to expand connectivity to areas that lack reliable internet access. Alternatively, provide additional supports for local governments to provide improved connectivity to low connectivity areas.
  • Update legislation related to student and educator data privacy so it is more applicable to the current education landscape. For example, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA).

Recommendations for School Leaders

  • Lead the conversation around connectivity and involve students and staff in the creation of policies for equitable technology use in and outside of school.
  • Incorporate the responsible use of mobile and social technologies into acceptable-use policies to ensure students are practicing digital citizenship as they increase their technology use.
  • Promote 1:1 access to connectible devices, including students’ own devices, to allow for “anytime, anywhere” learning.
  • Participate in and provide teachers professional development on the effective use of digital devices and virtual instruction and how these can be used to enhance instruction and provide students with a more personalized learning experience.
  • Support educators in using new technologies to advance learning that meets the diverse learning, cultural, and social-emotional needs of individual students.
  • Educate students and faculty on proper digital citizenship and security measures as the use of technology increases.
  • Educate staff on proper student data privacy protections to ensure the safety of student data and to adhere to federal laws like FERPA and COPPA.
  • Share information with parents on what is expected for student’s use of digital tools so they are fully aware of expectations and are able to provide feedback if they do not believe their child will be able to meet these expectations based on lack of accessibility or other factors.
  • Encourage leadership teams and other staff members to research other schools that have successfully integrated technology and to speak with their peers at those schools.
  • Develop a personal innovation professional network focused on the successful integration of technology use by students and staff members.

References

Anderson, M., & Perrin, A. (2020, May 30). Nearly one-in-five teens can’t always finish their homework because of the digital divide. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/26/nearly-one-in-five-teens-cant-always-finish-their-homework-because-of-the-digital-divide/.

Bendici, R. (2019, December 10). How to reach digital equity in education close tech divide. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://districtadministration.com/solve-digital-equity-in-education-technology-issues/.

Connecticut Commission for Educational Technology. (2020). Guidance on district policies to support digital learning.

Consortium of School Networking, and Title I Association. (2014). Rethinking educational equity in a digital era.

Crossland, A. (2020, July 23). Digital accessibility: How schools and teachers can support students with disabilities in remote learning. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://www.air.org/resource/digital-accessibility-how-schools-and-teachers-can-support-students-disabilities-remote.

DigCitCommit. (2020). Resources page. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://digcitcommit.org/resources

Krueger, N. (2020, September 29). Teaching anti-racism. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from

https://www.iste.org/explore/teaching-anti-racism

Levin, B. (2019, February 15). The coming digital divide: What to do, and not do, about it.

Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2019/02/15/the-coming-digital-divide-what-to-do-and-not-do-about-it/.

Lieberman, M. (2020, September 24). Internet access is a civil rights issue. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/09/23/internet-access-is-a-civil-rights-issue.html.

Litvinov, A. (2020, May 14). Coronavirus brings ‘homework gap’ to the forefront. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from http://neatoday.org/2020/05/04/coronavirus-brings-homework-gap-to-the-forefront/.

McLaughlin, C. (2016, April 20). The homework gap: The ‘cruelest part of the digital divide.’ Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://www.nea.org/advocating-for-change/new-from-nea/homework-gap-cruelest-part-digital-divide.

National Association of Secondary School Principals. (2018, November). Building Ranks™ K–12: A comprehensive framework for effective school leaders. Retrieved from https://nassptst2cms.personifycloud.com/professional-learning/building-ranks/.

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2019, June). Inclusive technology in a 21st-century learning system. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/research/inclusive-technology-in-a-21st-century-learning-system/.

Project Tomorrow. (2020). 90 days that changes K–12 teaching and learning: Spotlight on equity in learning. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://content.blackboard.com/90DaySeriesBrief2?elqTrackId=9444f8f384654e218804105210679efe&elq=00000000000000000000000000000000&elqaid=10749&elqat=2&elqCampaignId=.

U.S Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. (2017). Reimagining the role of technology in education: National educational technology plan 2017. Retrieved from www.ed.gov.

Vander Ark, T. (2017, March 01). 10 strategies promoting digital access and equity. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://www.gettingsmart.com/2017/03/10-strategies-promoting-digital-access-and-equity/.

Wong, W. (2020, September 15). Digital equity: How far have we come? Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2019/10/digital-equity-how-far-have-we-come.